Water vs Ice
From the initial stages of earths’ evolution, water has been a major part of earth. As for today, water covers more than 70% of the earths’ surface. From this, a larger portion of water is in the oceans and seas; which is about 97%. Rivers, lakes and ponds have 0.6% of water and about 2% is there in polar ice caps and glaciers. Some amount of water is present in the underground and a minute amount is in the gas form as vapors and in clouds. Among this, there is less than 1% of water left for direct human use. This pure water is also getting polluted day by day, and there should be a proper plan to conserve water.
H2O, which is known to all as water is something we cannot live without. Two hydrogens are covalently bonded to oxygen to form water. The molecule gets a bent shape to minimize the electron lone pair-bond repulsion and the H-O-H angle is 104o. Water is a clear, colorless, tasteless, odorless liquid, and it can be in various forms such as mist, dew, snow, ice, vapor, etc. Water goes to the gas phase when it is heated above 100 oC at the normal atmospheric pressure.
Water is truly a wonder molecule. It is the most abundant inorganic compound in living matter. More than 75% of our body composes of water. It is a component of cells, act as a solvent and reactant. Water is liquid at room temperature, although it has a low molecular weight of 18 gmol-1. The ability of water to form hydrogen bonds is a unique characteristic it has. Single water molecule can form four hydrogen bonds. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, making the O-H bonds in water polar. Because of the polarity and the ability to form hydrogen bonds, water is a powerful solvent. It is known as a universal solvent due to its capability in dissolving a large number of materials. Further, water has a high surface tension, high adhesive, cohesive forces. Water can withstand a temperature changes without going to the gas or solid form. This is known as having a high heat capacity, which in turn is important for the survival of living organisms.
Ice is the solid form of water. When water is cooled below 0oC it starts to freeze forming ice. Ice may be transparent or slightly opaque or have a color depending on the impurities it contains. Ice has an ordered regular crystalline structure. The hydrogen bonds are important for making this ordered solid structure in ice. Because water expands when it freezes, the density of ice is lower than water. Therefore, ice floats on water. This prevents the water in bottoms of the water bodies from freezing at winter period, thus protect aquatic life.
Difference Between Water and Ice
– Ice is the solid form of water.
– Ice has a certain crystalline structure, but water does not have such a regular arrangement of molecules.
– Water molecules are more compactly arranged in ice than in water. For this, hydrogen bonds play a major role in ice.
– Ice is less denser than water, therefore it floats on water.