Marxism vs Maoism
Marxism and Maoism are two kinds of political thoughts with some difference between them. Marxism aims at bringing about a state wherein there is equality between the rich and the poor. It is a kind of political ideology based on the dogmas laid down by Karl Marx. Maoism, on the other hand, is also known by the name of Mao Zedong Thought. Mao Zedong was the Chinese leader who came up with this ideology. Actually, Mao Zedong wanted his country, China, to see a proletariat revolution to change the society at that time. He could not use Marxism as it was in China that had a huge population of farmers. So, he made some changes in the theory that would agree with the conditions of China. This ideology is Maoism.
What is Marxism?
Marxism is completely based on how different classes are created due to their relationship to economy. Marxism believes that there are going to be class struggles because of the unfair treatment workers receive. The proletariat revolution is a result of these relationships with the economy as well. It is interesting to note that many experts of political thought view Marxism as a kind of philosophy too. They say Marxism is based on the materialistic interpretation of history. In other words, Marxists take into account the history of people and the impact it would have on the life of a person towards his development. As a matter of fact, Marxism prepares the ground for communism.
What is Maoism?
Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought is another kind of political thought that claims to be an anti-revolutionist form of Marxist communist theory. It is important to know that this political thought has developed vividly from the ideology framed by the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong who lived between 1893 and 1976. Maoism believed that a proletariat revolution was necessary to change the society for a better tomorrow. However, instead of a proletariat revolution of the urban workers, Maoism focused on motivating the farming population in China. That is because China was a hugely agricultural community at the time.
Maoism developed between 1950s and 1960s. The Communist Party of China or the CPC is said to have followed the principles laid down by the Maoist leader. Things changed a little bit after the passing away of Mao. Deng Xiaoping, who became the leader later, implemented his own Deng Xiaoping Theory by slightly modifying the Maoist theory.
Maoist parties and their armed groups predominantly exist in countries such as India, Nepal and Peru. These parties have contested elections and won a few too in some of the countries mentioned above. It is believed by the pundits of politics that there are no great similarities between Maoism and Marxism. On the other hand, there are some who believe that they differ from each other only slightly.
What is the difference between Marxism and Maoism?
• Both focus on a proletariat revolution that would change the society. Marxism focuses on the urban workers while Maoism focuses on the peasant or farming population.
• Marxism was a theory. Maoism adopted the theory of Marxism and applied it to China.
• Marxism believes in an economically strong state that is industrialized. Maoism does not give value to industrialization or technology.
• Maoism believed that industrialization would provide further means to owners to exploit people further. That way, industrialization was believed as a means of weakening the proletariat revolution. Marxism believed industrialization to be an essential component for a proletariat revolution because then only the workers will know how much they are suppressed by the capitalist state.
• Marxism valued industrial product and Maoism valued agricultural product.
• Marxism says that social change is driven by the economy. However, Maoism, puts emphasis on the ‘malleability of human nature.’ Maoism talks on how human nature can be changed by using only the will power.
• Marxism believed that everything that happens in a society is linked to the economy. This included how humans behave and the way human nature changed. Maoism believed everything that happens in a society is a result of human will.