ATPase is a term that refers to enzymes that are able to hydrolyze ATP. Generally, ATPases decompose ATP and the energy released during the reaction is utilized to do work since ATP is the energy currency that provides energy for all most all cellular processes. ATP breakdown needs ATPases. Therefore, ATPases lower the activation energy of ATP hydrolysis. There are four main types of ATPases as F-ATPases, V-ATPases, A-ATPases and P-ATPases. V type ATPases are primarily found in eukaryotic cell vacuoles. In contrast, F type ATPases are found in bacterial plasma membranes, mitochondria inner membrane and chloroplasts. They catalyze the hydrolysis or synthesis of ATP coupling with H+ (or Na+) transport across a membrane.
1. Overview and Key Difference
2. What is V Type ATPase
3. What is F Type ATPase
4. Similarities Between V Type and F Type ATPase
5. Side by Side Comparison – V Type vs F Type ATPase in Tabular Form
What is V Type ATPase?
Vacuolar type H+ ATPase or V type ATPase is one of the four types of ATPases. It is a membrane protein complex which has a size of 1 MDa. It consists of two main domains as V0 domain and V1 domain, having at least thirteen subunits. It also contains rotary motors. V1 domain is responsible for ATP hydrolysis while V0 domain is responsible for proton translocation.
V type ATPases are found primarily in eukaryotic cell vacuoles. Moreover, they are present in Golgi apparatus, endosomes and lysosomes. They are also found in bacteria. This enzyme hydrolyzes ATP and utilizes the released energy to protein trafficking, active transport of metabolites, neurotransmitter release, waste management and protein degradation, etc. Furthermore, V type ATPases acidify a wide array of cellular organelles.
What is F Type ATPase?
F type ATPase or ATP synthase is another enzyme found in bacterial plasma membranes, mitochondria inner membrane and chloroplasts. It is the prime producer of ATP. It uses a proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria to produce ATP. Moreover, it utilizes photophosphorylation of photosynthesis in chloroplasts to produce ATP.
F type ATPase is a multimeric complex having two domains as F0 and F1. F0 domain extends to the mitochondrial membrane, while F1 domain extends into the lumen. F1 domain is responsible for ATP turnover while F0 domain is responsible for ion translocation.
What are the Similarities Between V Type and F Type ATPase?
- V type and F type ATPases are two types of ATPases which are enzymes and essential cellular energy converters.
- They are found in eukaryotes and bacteria.a
- Both contain rotary motors.
- They are multi-subunit complexes.
- Both are composed of two domains as a soluble complex and a membrane complex.
What is the Difference Between V Type and F Type ATPase?
Vacuolar type H+ ATPase or V type ATPase is an enzyme which produces energy by ATP hydrolysis to transport protons across intracellular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. In contrast, F type ATPase is an enzyme that works as the prime enzyme of ATP synthesis. So, this is the key difference between V type and F type ATPase. Besides, V-type ATPases are found in vacuoles of eukaryotes and in bacteria while F-type ATPases are found in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts as well as in bacteria.
Moreover, V type ATPase hydrolyzes ATP and harness energy to transport proton across intracellular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells, while F type ATPase produces ATP via oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. Thus, this is the functional difference between V type and F type ATPase.
Below infographic provides more details of the difference between V type and F type ATPase.
Summary – V Type vs F Type ATPase
V type and F type ATPases are enzymes located in the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria and the membrane of eukaryotic organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Both are complexes comprising of more than 10 subunits assembled into two distinct domains. One domain is a catalytic domain involved in the energy conversion while the other sector is a membrane domain involved in proton translocation across the membrane. V type ATPase hydrolyzes ATP and harness energy to transport protons across intracellular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. F type ATPase produces ATP via oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. So, this summarizes the difference between V type and F type ATPase.